This paper presents the design and evaluation of a reflectance confocal laser endomicroscope using a miniature objective lens within a rigid probe in conjunction with an electrically tunable lens for axial scanning. The miniature lens was characterized alone as well as in the endoscope across a 200 µm axial scan range using the tunable lens. The ability of the confocal endoscope to probe the human oral cavity is demonstrated by imaging of the oral mucosa in vivo. The results indicate that reflectance confocal endomicroscopy has the potential to be used in a clinical setting and guide diagnostic evaluation of biological tissue.
Jabbour JM, Bentley JL, Malik BH, Nemechek J, Warda J, Cuenca R, Cheng S, Jo JA, and Maitland KC, "Reflectance confocal endomicroscope with optical axial scanning for in vivo imaging of the oral mucosa," Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 5, No. 11, 3781-3791, 2014.