Jabbour JM, Malik BH, Olsovsky C, Cuenca R, Cheng S, Jo JA, Cheng YSL, Wright JM, Maitland KC, “Optical axial scanning in confocal microscopy using an electrically tunable lens,” Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 5, No. 2, 645-652, 2014.
This paper presents the use and characterization of an electrically focus tunable lens to perform axial scanning in a confocal microscope. Lateral and axial resolution are characterized over a >250 µm axial scan range. Confocal microscopy using optical axial scanning is demonstrated in epithelial tissue and compared to traditional stage scanning. By enabling rapid axial scanning, minimizing motion artifacts, and reducing mechanical complexity, this technique has potential to enhance in vivo three-dimensional imaging in confocal endomicroscopy.